Health People 2020 defines a health disparity as “a particular type of health difference that is closely linked with social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. Health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, or physical disability; sexual orientation or gender identity; geographic location; or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion.”
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2008). Disparities. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Disparities
A health disparity should be viewed as a chain of events signified by a difference in: (1) environment, (2) access to, utilization of , and quality of care, (3) health status, or (4) a particular health outcome that deserves scrutiny. Such a difference should be evaluated in terms of both inequality and inequity, since what is unequal if not necessarily inequitable.
Carter-Pokras, O., & Baquet, C. (2002). What is a "health disparity"? Public Health Reports,117(5),426-34. PMID: 12500958
Literature on health disparities in Memphis City and Shelby County (17 references. Click the link for the complete list)
Gilbert, K.L., Ray, R., Siddiqi, A., Shetty, S., Baker, E.A., Elder, K., & Griffith, D.M. (2016). Visible and invisible trends in Black men's health: Pitfalls and promises for addressing racial, ethnic, and gender inequities in health. Annual Review of Public Health, 37,295-311. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021556. PMID: 26989830.
Conscious & Unconscious Biases in Health Care: This course was developed by the Georgetown University National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC). It focuses on conscious and unconscious biases in health care and their impact on people who are disproportionately affected by disparities in health and health care. It will offer an array of innovative activities, based on current evidence and best practices, that are intended to diminish the negative impact of biases. These are the content experts who contributed to the module development.
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Marmot, M. (2015). The health gap: The challenge of an unequal world. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press. Call number: RA 418.5. P6 M385 2015
White-Mean, S. (2013). Health disparities. In P.L., Mason (eds.), Encyclopedia of race and racism (2nd ed., 789-799). Macmillan Reference USA
Barr, D. A. (2008). Health disparities in the United States: Social class, race, ethnicity, and health. Baltimore,MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Call number: WA 300 B268h 2008
LaVeist, T.A. (2005). Minority populations and health: An introduction to health disparities in the United States. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass. Call number: WA 300 L399m 2005
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2015). 2014 national healthcare quality & disparities report chartbooks. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/2014chartbooks/index.html
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. (2016). National report of findings 2016 issue brief No. 4: Health care disparities. Retrieved from http://www.acgme.org/Portals/0/PDFs/CLER/CLER_Health_Care_Disparities_Issue_Brief.pdf