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DNP Neonatal Nurse Practitioner

Quick Tips

1. Many library databases (e.g., CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) have citation tools to generate citations in APA format, but doublecheck for accuracy with the APA Manual. 

2. Free EndNote Web account can help with the citation format.

3. EndNote Desktop software is freely available through the UTK OIT Download Site. If you want to learn how to use EndNote, go to the library EndNote guide for more information. 

4. The American Psychological Association answers questions and provides examples on the APA Style Blog.  

5. Contact the librarian for a consultation. 

 

APA Format

NOTE: All the citation formats below are based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th edition.  

UpToDate (as suggested by its publishers)

Cite the UpToDate topic review as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by T. W. Post, published by UpToDate in Waltham, MA. As a CD-ROM or online service, there are no page numbers to cite. Since UpToDate is released every four months, the publication year for any topic review should be the current year.

Bichet, D. G. (2014). Diagnosis of polyuria and diabetes insipidus. In T. Post (Ed.), UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com

STAT!Ref (as suggested by its publishers)

STAT!-Ref book chapter:

Falk, E. & Fuster, Y. (2007). Atherogenesis and its determinants. In Hurst's the Heart. Available from http://online.statref.com/document.aspx?.

Friedman, R.A. (2012, January 16). Depression defies the rush to find an

evolutionary upside. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Entire Print Book

Author's Last Name, First initial. (Copyright date). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Kelly, P. & Marthaler, M.T. (2011). Nursing delegation, setting priorities, and making patient care assignments. Delmar.

In-text: (Kelly & Marthaler, 2011)

Chapter in a Book/Textbook

Garvin, J. H. & Weiner, M. (2009). Informatics evaluation and outcomes research related to core HIM functions. In E. J. Layman & V. J. Watlaf (Eds.), Health informatics research methods: Principles and practice. (pp. 159-176). American Health Information Management.

In-text: (Garvin & Weiner, 2009)

Entire eBook (with doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable]. doi:xxxxx

Entire eBook (no doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

eBook Chapter (with doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable] (pp. xxx–xxx). doi:xxxxx

eBook Chapter (no doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable] (pp. xxx–xxx). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Journal Article with DOI

 Author. (Date). Title of article only first word capitalized. Journal Name in italics, Volume number in italics (Issue number), page range. doi number.

Pfister-Minogue, K. & Salveson, C.(2010).  Training and experience of public health nurses in using behavior change counseling. Public Health Nursing, 27(6), 544-551. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1446.2010.00884.x

In-text: (Pfister-Minoque & Salveson, 2010)

Journal Article without DOI

Mador, R. L., Shaw, N. T., Cheetham, S., & Reid, R. J. (2008). Whose record is it anyway? Putting patients' interests at the heart of the implementation and use of electronic medical records. Healthcare Quarter, 11(4), 90-2.

In-text citation: (Mador, Shaw, Cheetham, & Reid, 2008)

Advanced Online Publication

Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0028240

An Organization’s Webpage (e.g. AHIMA)

American Health Information Management Association.  (2012). Medical coding. Retrieved from http://www.ahima.org/coding/default.aspx

In-text: (American Health Information Management Association [AHIMA], 2012)

After 1st in-text, abbreviate: (AHIMA, 2012)

Online Government Document

Government Name. Name of Government Agency. (Year). Title of document: Subtitle. (Report No. xxx [if available]). URL of specific document

Tennessee Department of Health. (n.d.). Advance directives resources. http://health.state.tn.us/advancedirectives/

In-text: (Tennessee Department of Health [TDOH], n.d.)

After 1st in-text, abbreviate: (TDOH, n.d.)

Magazine Article

Webber, R. (2012, February). Are you with the right mate? Psychology Today, 45(1), 56-65.

Online Magazine Article 

Author, A. (year, month). Title of online article. Name of online magazine, Volume number(Issue number). Retrieved from magazine web address       Note:  Include volume and issue number, if available.

Seltzer, L.F. (2010, November). The psycho-logic of dreams: Pt. 1 of the "Logical Illogic" of the psycho-logical. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/

Basic In-Text Citations (APA 6th Edition)

Types

1st citation

Subsequent

1st citation (Parenthetical format)

Subsequent

One  author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007)

(Walker, 2007)

 

Two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

 

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Three authors

Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)

Bradley et al. (1999)

(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

Four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)

Bradley et al. (2006)

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

Five authors

Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)

Walker et al. (2008)

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

Six or more authors

Wassestein et al. (2005)

Wassestein et al. (2005)

(Wassestein et al., 2005)

 

(Wassestein et al., 2005)

Groups as authors

Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2003)

IOM (2003)

(Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2003)

(IOM, 2003)

Groups (no abbreviation)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of Pittsburgh,  2005)


American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., p. 177). Washington, DC: Author.

Basic In-Text Citations (APA 7th Edition)

Types

1st citation

Subsequent

1st citation (Parenthetical format)

Subsequent

One  author

Luna (2020)

Luna (2020)

(Luna, 2020)

(Luna, 2020)

Two authors

Salas and D'Agostino (2020)

Salas and D'Agostino (2020)

(Salas & D'Agostino, 2020)

(Salas & D'Agostino, 2020)

Three or more authors

Martin et al. (2020)

Martin et al. (2020)

(Martin et al., 2020)

(Martin et al., 2020)

Groups as authors

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)

NIMH (2020)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)

Groups (no abbreviation)

Stanford University (2020)

Stanford University (2020)

(Stanford University, 2020)

(Stanford University, 2020)


American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 266). Washington, DC: Author.

How to cite something you found on the website in APA style: What to do when information is missing?

The essential APA pieces are author, date, title, and source. Sometimes, however, one or more of those pieces is missing, and writing the reference can get more difficult. This page is to help you adapt the classic APA Style reference template to fit any situation where information might be missing. The PDF file is also available for download from the APA Style Blog. 

1. Nothing is missing; I've got all the pieces.

Example:

Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Retrieved from

http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12956&page=R1

  • In-text citation: First time: (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2010); Later (IOM, 2010)

2. Author is missing. Solution: Substitute title for the author

Example:

 Feminism. (2017). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

  • In-text citation: (Feminism, 2017)

3. Date is missing. Solution: use n.d. for no date

Example:

Tennessee Department of Health. (n.d.). Advance directives resources. Retrieved from http://health.state.tn.us/AdvanceDirectives/index.htm#Forms

  • In-text citation: First time: ( Tennessee Department of Health [TDH], n.d.); Later (TDH, n.d.)

4. Date is missing, can be reasonably approximated. Solution; use ca. followed by a year, in brackets

Example:

Day, F. [Falicia]. [ca. 2013]. Posts [Google+ page]. Retrieved July 8, 2013, from https://plus.google.com/+FeliciaDay/posts

  • In-text citation: (Day, ca. 2013)

5. Author and date are both missing. Solution: combine author and date methods

Example:

Diversity. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diversity

  • In-text citation: ("Diversity," n.d.)