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DNP Neonatal Nurse Practitioner

Quick Tips

  1. Many library databases (e.g., CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) have citation tools to generate citations in APA format, but doublecheck for accuracy with the APA Manual. 
  2. Free EndNote Web account can help with the citation format.
    1. This account allows you to access EndNote's Manuscript Matcher, a tool that uses the title, abstract and references of your manuscript to connect it with content in the Web of Science and thus "match" it with relevant publications.
  3. EndNote Desktop software is freely available through the UTK OIT Download Site. If you want to learn how to use EndNote, go to the library EndNote guide for more information. 
  4. The American Psychological Association answers questions and provides examples on the APA Style Blog.  
  5. Contact the librarian for a consultation. 

APA Format

NOTE: All the citation formats below are based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 7th edition.  


Author, A. (date). Title of entry. UpToDate. Retrieved Month day,  year, from from http://xxxxxxxxx

Articles in UpToDate are available only in that database and have information changes over time. In the reference list, format UpToDate articles like periodical articles. Do not italicize database name if it appears in the text. Use the year of the last update in the date element, and include a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and versions of the page are not archived.

STAT!Ref (as suggested by its publishers)

Chapter example:

Freeman, J. A., Alcott, S. B., Derian, A. G., Bailey, C. H. (Ed.). (2020). Clinical evaluation. In W. Frontera (Ed.), DeLisa's Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Cite the original source. Use the bibliography tool located at the bottom of each section to find citation information. Use the chapter's authors as the authors. 

Entire Print Book

Author's Last Name, First initial. (Copyright date). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge. 

Parenthetical citation: (Burgess, 2019)

Chapter in a Book/Textbook

Author, A.A., & Author, B. B. (2020). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher Name. 

Balsam, K. F., Martell, C. R., Jones, K. P., & Safren, S. A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Y. Iwamasa & P. A. Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision (2nd ed,. pp. 287-314). American Psychological Association.

Parenthetical citation: (Balsam et al., 2019)

Entire eBook (with doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. doi:xxxxx

Entire eBook (no doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher Name. http://xxxxx

eBook Chapter (with doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book. (pp. xxx–xxx). doi:xxxxx

eBook Chapter (no doi)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book. (pp. xxx–xxx). http://xxxxx

Journal Article with DOI

Author. (Date). Title of article. Journal Name, Volume number (Issue number), page range. doi:xxxxx

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language us: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51.

Parenthetical Citation: (McCauley & Christiansen, 2019)

Journal Article without DOI

Author. (Date). Title of article. Journal Name, Volume number (Issue number), page range.

Example without a DOI with a nondatabase URL:

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39. 

Parenthetical citation: (Ahmann et al., 2018)

Journal, magazine, or newspaper articles without a DOI from most academic research databases or print versions do not need URLs or database names included. See Section 9:30 of the APA Manual for more information on excluding or including database information in references. 

Advanced Online Publication

Huestegge, S. M., Raettig, T., & Huestegge, L. (2019). Are face-incongruent voices harder to process? Effects of face-voice gender incongruency on basic cognitive information processing. Experimental Psychology. Advance online publication.

Parenthetical citation: (Huestegge et al., 2019)

An Organization’s Webpage (e.g. The World Health Organization)

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.

Parenthetical Citation: (World Health Organization, 2018)

Report by Government Agency/Other Organization

Name of Government Agency. (Date). Title of document. Publisher name. URL of specific document

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Parenthetical citation: (National Cancer Institute, 2018)

Magazine Article

Author. (Date). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume number (Issue number), page range.

Weir, K (2017, January). Forgiveness can improve mental and physical health. Monitor on Psychology, 48(1), 30.

Parenthetical citation: (Weir, 2017)

Online Magazine Article 

Author. (Date). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume number (Issue number), page range. URL [if online]

Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33-34.

Parenthetical citation: (Bergeson, 2019)

Basic In-Text Citations (APA 7th Edition)


1st citation


1st citation (Parenthetical format)


One  author

Luna (2020)

Luna (2020)

(Luna, 2020)

(Luna, 2020)

Two authors

Salas and D'Agostino (2020)

Salas and D'Agostino (2020)

(Salas & D'Agostino, 2020)

(Salas & D'Agostino, 2020)

Three or more authors

Martin et al. (2020)

Martin et al. (2020)

(Martin et al., 2020)

(Martin et al., 2020)

Groups as authors

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)

NIMH (2020)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)

Groups (no abbreviation)

Stanford University (2020)

Stanford University (2020)

(Stanford University, 2020)

(Stanford University, 2020)

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 266). Washington, DC: Author.

How to cite something you found on the website in APA style: What to do when information is missing?

The essential APA pieces are author, date, title, and source. Sometimes, however, one or more of those pieces is missing, and writing the reference can get more difficult. This page is to help you adapt the classic APA Style reference template to fit any situation where information might be missing. The APA Style Blog also has more information about missing reference information. 

1. Nothing is missing; I've got all the pieces.


Author. (Date). Title. Source.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Author, year)

2. Author is missing. Solution: Substitute title for the author


Title. (Date). Source.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Title, Year)

3. Date is missing. Solution: use n.d. for no date


Author. (n.d.). Title. Source.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Author, n.d.)

4. Author and date are both missing. Solution: Provide the title, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the source.


Title. (n.d.). Source.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Title, n.d.)