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Pharmacy and Pharmacology : Citing AMA

General AMA Style Rules

  • Items are listed numerically in the order they are cited in the text
  • Include up to 6 authors
  • For more than six, provide the names of the first three authors and then add et al
  •  If there is no author, start with the title
  • Periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers) should have abbreviated titles; To check for the proper abbreviation, search for the Journal Title through LocatorPlus at the National Library of Medicine website.

AMA In-Text Citations

References are numbered in  consecutive order in the text, tables, or figures.

Use superscript arabic numerals to cite material, e.g., 1    The first reference used in a written document is listed as 1 in the reference list.

Where to place the superscript?  The superscript number 1  is inserted into the document immediately next to the fact, concept, or quotation being cited.  If citing more than one reference at the same point, separate the numbers with commas and no spaces between. 

The Superscript number is inserted:

  • Immediately next to the fact, idea or quotation being cited.  Ex. This drug is used to treat hepatitis.1
  • Outside periods and commas. Ex. Storing latex at high heat may cause degradation, 2,3-5,7  but it is difficult to keep materials cool in a desert environment.
  • Inside colons and semi-colons. Ex. Some physicians choose to store prescription pads in locked cabinets 8; others keep them in their coats at all times.9
  • When more than 2 references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without space to separate other parts of a multiple citation.  Ex. As reported previously,1,4-7,19,24

If a reference is used multiple times in one paper, use the same number throughout.

At the end of the document, include a reference list with full citations to each item. Name it References. Order citations as they appear in your paper.

Using author's names in-text: You may use author names in your text, as long as these mentions are accompanied by numbered citations. Use last names only.  For items with one or two authors, include both names. For items with 3 or more authors, include the first author's surname and then 'et al' or 'and colleagues'.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

Ex. Smith and Jones2 reported on the questionnaire. Ex. Hammersmith et al3 reported on the survey.

AMA Formats for Most Common Sources

Book (Print)

Author last name, first initial. Title in Italics. Edition. City, State: Name of Publisher; date of publication. 

Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al., eds. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.

Book Chapter (Print)

Author last name, first initial. Title of Chapter in Italics. In Editor last name, First intial, ed. Title fo Book. Edition. City, State: Name of Publisher; date of publication: page range. 

Solensky R. Drug allergy: Desensitization and Treatment of Reactions to Antibiotics and Aspirin. In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.

Facts & Comparisons eAnswers

Name of monograph, specific topic or chart. Specific database. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Riverwoods, IL. Available at:  http://online.factsandcomparisons.com. Accessed Month day, year.

Example:

Fluticasone Propionate.  Drug Facts and Comparisons. Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Riverwoods, IL.  Available at:  http://online.factsandcomparisons.com.  Accessed September 15, 2016.

Journal (Online article with doi, 6 or fewer authors)

Example:
Florez H, Martinez R, Chakra W, Strickman-Stein M, Levis S. Outdoor exercise reduces the risk of hypovitaminosis D in the obese. J Steroid Biochem Mol Bio. 2007;103(3-5):679-681. doi:10.1016 /j.jsbmb.2006.12.032.

Journal (Online article, no doi, with more than 6 authors)

Siris ES, Miller PD, Barrett-Connor E, et al. Identification and fracture outcomes of undiagnosed low bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. JAMA. 2001;286(22):2815-2822. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/286/22 /2815. Accessed April 4, 2007.

Journal (Print, 6 or fewer authors)

Florez H, Martinez R, Chakra W, Strickman-Stein M, Levis S. Outdoor exercise reduces the risk of hypovitaminosis D in the obese. J Steroid Biochem Mol Bio. 2007;103(3-5):679-681.

Lexi-Comp

Name of monograph, specific topic or chart. Specific database. Lexicomp. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Riverwoods, IL. Available at:  http://online.lexi.com. Accessed Month day, year.

Example:

Fluticasone Propionate. Lexi-Drugs. Lexicomp. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Riverwoods, IL.  Available at:  http://online.lexi.com.  Accessed September 15, 2016.

Micromedex

Title of monograph or document. Micromedex Solutions. Truven Health Analytics, Inc. Ann Arbor, MI. Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed Month day, year.

Example:

Fluticasone Propionate.  Micromedex Solutions.  Truven Health Analytics, Inc. Ann Arbor, MI.  Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com.  Accessed September 15, 2016.

Websites

Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the website. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

Example:

Diabetes Type 1. MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/diabetestype1.html Updated September 13, 2016. Accessed September 15, 2016.