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DNP Pediatric Acute Care Nurse Practitioner

APA: An Introduction

You can listen to the audio file for the following slides. 

Basic In-Text Citations


1st citation


1st citation (Parenthetical format)


One  author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007)

(Walker, 2007)

Two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Three authors

Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)

Bradley et al. (1999)

(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

Four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)

Bradley et al. (2006)

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

Five authors

Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)

Walker et al. (2008)

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

Six or more authors

Wassestein et al. (2005)

Wassestein et al. (2005)

(Wassestein et al., 2005)

(Wassestein et al., 2005)

Groups as authors

Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2003)

IOM (2003)

(Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2003)

(IOM, 2003)

Groups (no abbreviation)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of Pittsburgh,  2005)

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., p. 177). Washington, DC: Author.

APA Resources

You are required to use the format of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th edition, for course assignments. 

  • There are copies of APA style manual, 6th edition in the library. One copy is available to check out for two hours in Permanent Reserves and one copy is in Reference Collection. Both copies are in library use only. The Call Number is WZ345 P976 2010. 
  • In addition to using the official publication manuals to format your citations, you can also use CINAHL or Scopus that has a feature of creating a bibliography in many formats including APA. 
  • You can also consult some free online guides:
    1. APA Citation Style from Cornell University Library: Examples for citing different resources in APA style.
    2. APA Style Guide from Alvin Sherman Library, Nova Southeastern University: Comprehensive APA guide, videos, and examples 
    3. Purdue Online Writing Lab: Detailed instructions in using APA style.
    4. APA Citation Style from Camosun College Library: Provides some unique examples.
    5. APA 6th edition FAQs:Frequently ask questions related to using APA style in these categories general, references, punctuation, grammar, and formatting.
  • You can also consult video tutorials:
  1. Tutorials created by APA staff: The tutorials cover APA style formatting, citing, and writing. Once in the tutorials, simply click the Outline tab to see a list of topics.