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Nursing - Professional Issues

This is a course research guide for a nursing credit course: Professional Issues.

Basic In-Text Citations


1st citation


1st citation (Parenthetical format)


One  author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007)

(Walker, 2007)

Two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Three authors

Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)

Bradley et al. (1999)

(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

Four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)

Bradley et al. (2006)

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

Five authors

Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)

Walker et al. (2008)

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

Six or more authors

Wassestein et al. (2005)

Wassestein et al. (2005)

(Wassestein et al., 2005)

(Wassestein et al., 2005)

Groups as authors

Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2003)

IOM (2003)

(Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2003)

(IOM, 2003)

Groups (no abbreviation)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of Pittsburgh,  2005)

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., p. 177). Washington, DC: Author.

How to cite something you found on the website in APA style: What to do when information is missing?

The essential APA pieces are author, date, title, and source. Sometimes, however, one or more of those pieces is missing, and writing the reference can get more difficult. This page is to help you adapt the classic APA Style reference template to fit any situation where information might be missing. The PDF file is also available for download from the APA Style Blog. 

1. Nothing is missing; I've got all the pieces.


Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Retrieved from

  • In-text citation: First time: (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2010); Later (IOM, 2010)

2. Author is missing. Solution: Substitute title for the author


 Feminism. (2017). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from

  • In-text citation: (Feminism, 2017)

3. Date is missing. Solution: use n.d. for no date


Tennessee Department of Health. (n.d.). Advance directives resources. Retrieved from

  • In-text citation: First time: ( Tennessee Department of Health [TDH], n.d.); Later (TDH, n.d.)

4. Date is missing, can be reasonably approximated. Solution; use ca. followed by a year, in brackets


Day, F. [Falicia]. [ca. 2013]. Posts [Google+ page]. Retrieved July 8, 2013, from

  • In-text citation: (Day, ca. 2013)

5. Author and date are both missing. Solution: combine author and date methods


Diversity. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved from

  • In-text citation: ("Diversity," n.d.)