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Citation Resources: APA FAQ

Open sources for citation tools.


Q1: How to cite IOM report: The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health?

A: In-text citation (First):

                        (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2010)

 In-text citation (Subsequent):

             (IOM, 2010)

 Reference list:

Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Retrieved from

Q2: Can I cite TV series as I think they motivated me in certain way?

A: Yes. You could, but it has to be connected or related to your CNL future role. If the connection is weak, I would not mention it in my paper. 

Q3: Should I use page number when citing a book?

A: Basically, Yes, especially if you get a direct quote from a work, you will need to include these elements in the citation: the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p"). 

Q4: How to cite a chapter in Cherry and Jacob's book, Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & management?

A: Treat it as citing a chapter in an edited book with two authors.

     In text: (Chapter author, year of publication, Chapter X) -- See APA 6th ed. 6.19 p.179.

     (Bargagliotti, 2011, Chapter 2)

      Note that if you direct quote from the chapter, you will need to give page number. That will change the in-text citation. 

     Reference list: (pp. xx-xx for chapter range page numbers) Please adjust spacing. 

     Bargagliotti, L.A. (2011). The contemporary image of professional nursing. In B. Cherry & S. R. Jacob (Eds.), Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & management (5th ed., pp. xx-xx). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Q5: Does APA use ibid?

A: No. APA never uses ibid. Instead give each citation using author names as usual. To learn about how APA uses Latin abbreviations in the APA official blog. You can download the abbreviation table in PDF.

Q6: I would like to reference a nursing theory from How should I cite it?

A: Treat it as a webpage within a website. 

    In text: (, 2011)

    Reference list: (Please adjust spacing) (2011). Nursing theories: A companion to nursing theories and models. Retrieved from

Q7: When citing a source, when to use page numbers in the body of a paper?

A: Based on APA 6th ed., rule 6.03, p. 170, "when quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for non-paginated materials in the in text." To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, ... at the appropriate point in text." However, "when paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long and complex text." (APA 6th ed. Rule 6.04, p. 171)

Q8: How to cite a statute such as Tennessee Health Care Decision Act?

A: APA rule A7.04: In text, give the popular or official name of the act (if any) and the year or the act. In the reference list entry, include the source and section number of the statute, and in parentheses, give the publication date.

For example,

Tennessee Health Care Decision Act In text: (Tennessee Health Care Decision Act, 2004)

or Tennessee Health Care Decision Act (2004)

or Tennessee Health Care Decision Act of 2004

Reference list: Tennessee Health Care Decision Act, Tenn. Code Ann. §68-11-1803 (2004). APA style blog has more examples of citing federal statutes.

Q9: What if I cited several chapters in Cherry & Jacob's book, Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & management?


You would need to provide a separate reference for each chapter that you use. Credt the chapter authors in the body of the paper and create corresponding reference entry in the reference list.  

In text:

(Norris, 2011, p.499)

(Werner, 2011, p.448)

Reference list: (pp. xx-xx for chapter range page numbers) (Please adjust spacing)

Norris, T.L. (2011). Making the transition from student to professional nurse. In B. Cherry & S. R. Jacob (Eds.), Contemporary nursing: Issues,  trends, & management (5th ed., pp. xx-xx). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Werner, K.M. (2011). Quality inprovement and patient safety. In B. Cherry & S. R. Jacob (Eds.), Contemporary nursing: Issues,  trends, & management (5th ed., pp. xx-xx). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Q10: I found a PPT from Tennessee Department of Health. Could you tell me how to cite it?


To cite online PowerPoint slides, follow this order:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx


For example, to cite a PowerPoint from Tennessee Department of Health

In text: (Tennessee Department of Health [TDOH], n.d.)

Reference list:

Tennessee Department of Health. (n.d.). Advance directives: What are they? [PowerPoint  slides]. Retrived


Q11: How to cite a secondary source?


In text:

(as cited in Jacob, 2011, p. 15)

Reference list:

Jacob, S.R. (2011). The evolution of professional nursing. In B. Cherry & S. R. Jacob (Eds.), Contemporary nursing: Issues,

      trends, & management (5th ed., pp. xx-xx). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Q12: How to cite the CNL white paper?


In Text (First):

(American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2007)

In Text (Subsequent):

(AACN, 2007)

Reference list:

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2007). White paper on the education and role of the clinical nurse leader. Retrieved from

Q13: How to cite a fact sheet from the Internet?


In text (First):

(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2014)

In text (Subsequent):

(HHS, 2014)

Reference list

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The Affordable Care Act and African Americans [Fact sheet].

            Retrieved from

Q14: What is gray literature and how to cite them?


Grey literature refers to literature that is not formally published in sources such as books and journals. Grey literature includes but not limited to conference abstracts or papers, hard to find studies, reports, or dissertations, governmental or private sector research, ongoing or unpublished clinical trials, technical reports, press release, white papers, fact sheets, brochures, or policy briefs. 

According to APA rule (see APA book 7.03, p. 205-206 or APA style guide to electronic references, p. 19-21), formatting gray literature as you would a book. Some examples are citing IOM reportCNL white paper, and fact sheet.

Q15: How to cite an article from MedlinePlus?


In-text citation first time:

(National Library of Medicine [NLM], 2014)

In-text subsquent citation: 

(NLM, 2014)

Reference list: 

National Library of Medicine. (2014). Hantavirus infections. Retrieved from